As previously stated, ayurvedic science is based on its mulbhoot siddhantas. Here v’ll deal with two important siddhant “Dosha-Dhatu-Mala” siddhant & “Panchamahabhoot siddhant”
I. Dosha-Dhatu-Mala Siddhanta
“Doshadhatumalamulam hi shariram” (ref:ashtang hriday).
This siddhant explains that human life is a constitution of three Doshas, seven Dhatus, and three Malas.
Tridosha: Vata, Pitta, kapha are the three Doshas prevailing in our body, normalcy of these doshas keeps the body in a healthy state and their imbalance leads to diseased state. The normalcy or imbalance should be understood with respect to the quantity, quality, and functions of these doshas.
Sapta Dhatu: The human body is composed of seven dhatus, which are :
- Rasa (Plasma) – Rasa is the first dhatu, its function is “Prinan” (to provide nourishment to the body.)
- Rakta (Blood) – This second dhatu is essential bodily element which keeps life going.this function is known as “Jeevan”meda dhay.
- Mamsa (muscle) – Mamsa dhatu performs “ Lepan” function. lepan means to cover all the internal body components.
- Meda (Fat tissue) –“Snehan” is the main role of meda dhatu,the word snehan literally means oleation, but for better understanding it explains necessary greasing and oiling in different body parts, like lubrication for joints, providing skin luster,and performing other body functions smoothly etc. it also provides extra protection for deeper tissues.
- Asthi (Bones) – Asthi dhatu’s function is “Dharan”,i.e. it provides support to the body.
- Majja (bone marrow) – “Puran” Majja dhatu has its seat inside the hollow cavity of bones; it helps asthi dhatu in its function by providing extra support .
- Shukra (semen) – Shukra, is the dhatu responsible for reproduction.
Mala – Purish(faeces), Mutra(urine), & Sweda(sweat) are the three mala.
II. Panchamahabhoot Siddhant
The theory explains that our body is made up of ‘Panchamahabhoot’ (five universal elements), namely – Prithvi (Earth), Jal (Water), Tej (Fire), Vayu (Air) & Akaash (Ether).
Ayurveda believes that as these five elements exist in universe, similarly they have their existence in our body; eg: there exists fire in nature & here we have digestive fire inside us. The Ether is nothing but the space which represents all the hollow cavities in our body,like digestive tract,hollowness in blood vessels,etc.. Element Air can be experienced by respiration and water can be understood by all the fluid contents of our body like blood,or plasma.
These five elements while retaining their own qualities & maintaining their equilibrium, facilitates smooth functioning of body. Shift in its equilibrium is the cause for various illness.
So it is said “Yatha loke tatha dehe”.