The news of conception and feeling of becoming a mother gives an unexplained contentment to every woman’s heart. It is an innate desire of every woman to hold her baby in arms and bestow upon it, her affectionate love, generously.
Conception is a natural course in an individual, whereas in some cases the female may have to confront some hinderances. As explained previously, Infertility is inability to conceive after one year of unprotected sexual intercourse. Woman who conceive but are incapable to retain the foetus till the birth are also termed infertile.
Causes of Female Infertility :
According to Ayurveda Uterus comprises of three functional layers :
Prathamavarta or the first layer consists of Vulva. Dwitiyaavarta or Second layer comprises of Vagina, cervical canal, cervix. The ovaries, fallopian tubes and endometrium forms the innermost third layer or Tritiyaavarta, any abnormality in these functional layers results in gynaecological problems.
The root cause of Female Infertility can be either structural or functional anomaly or both.
- Vaginal infections.
- Uterine cavity – Growth, fibroid, malformation.
- Ovaries – PCOD (Polycystic Ovarian Disease), Unovulation.
- Fallopian tubes – Tubal impatency.
- Structural defect.
- Pelvic causes – Endometriosis, Adhesions, Septum.
- Repeated abortions.
- Urinary tract infections.
- Generalised debility.
“ Na hi vatat rute yoni narinam sampradushyati ”
This explains that uterus and its tissues has the predominance of Apan vayu and its functions are also regulated by the same, hence any imbalance in Apan vayu results in uterine disorders and ultimately is the cause for infertility.
Vaginal infection – Vaginal infections if ignored can result in serious issues like eruptive ulcers or erosions in vaginal tract. Presence of leucocytes in mucous indicates infection of Gonnorhoea, Chalmydia trachomatis. Sometimes excessive Pitta and increased heat in body can cause burning sensation, swelling, ulcers, and pain in vagina. Excessive heat in vagina leads to necrospermia. Pain and excessive dryness in vagina, piles, fistula and fissures ultimately causes Dysparunia. The vaginal swelling may sometimes have an internal origin high up in the uterus.
Cervix – Position and patency of cervix and the cervical canal plays an important role in conception. The narrow cervical opening causes hinderance in sexual intercourse and thus becomes a cause for infertility. Anteverted or retroverted uterus prevents sperms to reach the uterus. Outgrowths like Cyst, Chocolate cyst or Bartholin cyst, fibroid, etc.
Uterine causes – Irregularity, inflammation, adhesions swelling in the endometrial cavity inhibits the implantation of the embryo. Previous D&C, endometrial infections, tumor, fibroid, polyps in the uterus. Malformed, septate uterus, Underdeveloped reproductive organs, smaller uterine cavity are some of the causes.
Tubal and Ovarian factors – Salphingitis, adhesions, tubal blocks, unovulation due to hormonal imbalance, irregular menses, PCOD.
Generalised cause – Generalised debility, history of trauma to reproductive organs, anaemia, tuberculosis, hypothyroidism, physical or mental stress, etc.
History of repeated abortions weakens the uterine tissues, thus preventing the uterus to retain the fertilized ovum for longer span. It may also lead to long term infections. Past history of diseases like measles, rubella, etc. and frequent urinary tract infections serves an efficient cause for infertility.
Fear or unawareness about sexual intercourse, or conception requires effectual counselling which can solve the problem for sure.
Unhealthy food habits, changing lifestyle, untimely meals, lack of nutrition, lack of exercise, over exertion, self medication, or excessive use of hormonal pills to regulate menses according to our convenince plays against natural course resulting in infertility. Smoking impairs ovarian function and prevents embryo implantation into the endometrium. There can still be a long list to add but these are the few which should be taken care of.